What is the significance of “cells” and “flare” seen on slit lamp examination?

Cells and flare are indicative of inflammation of the uvea, specifically, anterior uveitis or iritis.

Cells are leukocytes within the anterior chamber and have an appearance similar to dust in a beam of light, and flare is protein in the same region, it appears finer, like smoke.

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References

http://www.reviewofoptometry.com/continuing_education/tabviewtest/lessonid/107773/